The Nag Hammadi Library

    In 1945, in upper Egypt near Nag Hammadi, an amazing discovery was made, a collection of 13 ancient codices containing over 50 text, a virtual library of Coptic text. A red earthenware jar was discovered by Alí al-Sammán, an Arab peasant, while he was digging for sabakh, a soft soil used for fertilizer. Almost afraid to open the jar least it contain a Jinn, he overcame his fear when he thought that perhaps the jar contained gold. When he smashed the jar, he found 13 papyrus books bound in leather. Disappointed in his find, he brought the books and the loose papyrus leaves and dumped them on the kindling pile. His mother admitted to having used a lot of them to start fires.
       Alí al-Sammán and his brother were involved in a blood feud with a man that had murdered their father. They exacted revenge, murdering the man in return. Afraid that the police would find the text, Ali asked a priest, al-Qummus Basiliyus Abd al-Masih, to hide one or more for him. A local history teacher saw the book and obtained one from the priest. He then sent it to a friend in Cairo to see if it was valuable. The book was sold on the black market which attracted the attention of the local authorities. They then arranged clandestinely to buy another and during the transaction confiscated 10 and 1/2 of the 13 codices which were then placed in the Coptic Museum in Cairo. A large portion of the 13th codex was smuggled out of Egypt and offered for sale in America. Professor Gilles Quispel, a distinguished historian of religion, found out about the codex and persuaded the Jung Foundation in Zurich to buy the text. Finding out that pages were missing, Quispel flew to Cairo and went to the Coptic Museum to study the remaining text. What he had was "The Gospel of Thomas" bound in the same volume as "The Gospel of Phillip".
     The text are primarily Gnostic scriptures that were thought to have been destroyed during the purge of the text by the Church. The original texts can hardly be dated later than c. A.D. 120-150 because in 180 AD Irenaeus, the orthodox Bishop of Lyons, wrote that "heretics" "boast that they possess more gospels than there really are,'' and the text were widely used in Gaul, Rome, Greece, and Asia Minor. The leather and papyrus used to bind the text date to A.D. 350-400. It is generally accepted that the original language was Greek with the translation being Coptic.
     The translation of the text was completed in the 1970's. The manuscripts offer major insights into early Christian history and Gnosticism. There are six major catagories of writings contained in the Library. They are Writings of Creation and Redemptive Mythology, Commentaries on different Gnostic themes, Initiatory and Liturgical texts, The Feminine Writings, The Lives and Experiences of some of the Apostles, and The Sayings of Jesus. Unfortunately, time and circumstance has taken its toll on some of the manuscripts. Fragments exist that can't be classified in any of the above catagories. Three of the manuscripts that have been very well preserved are "The Gospel of Thomas", "The Gospel of Phillip", and "The Gospel of Truth".

The Apocalyptic Texts

The Apocryphon of James
     The Apocryphon of James is a  work of a Christian Gnostic. The original language of the manuscript was Greek and was translated into the Coptic. The speeches of Jesus are partly the author's writings which incorporate complex oral and possibly very old written stories. It is thought that the manuscript was written before 150 CE.  It can not be dated later than 314 CE.

The Apocryphon of John (Codex II)
      The Apocryphon of John deals with the creation, the fall, and the salvation of humankind. It relies on the first chapters of Genesis. Early church officials were familiar with the text and it was still in use in the 8th Century CE by the Audians of Mesopotamia. There are three versions of the manuscript translated from Greek into Coptic. It is known that the teachings contained in the text existed before 185 CE.

The Apocalypse of Paul
      Codex V contains four apocalyptic texts, the first being the Apocalypse of Paul. This Gnostic writing concerns the ascension of Paul through the ten heavens. Although the place of origin of the text is unknown, it is thought to have been written no later than the 2nd Century CE. The Apocalypse of Paul is definitely a Gnostic writing because of it's anti-Jewish bias concerning the deity in the 7th heaven.

The 1st Apocalypse of James
      The 1st Apocalypse of James is a Gnostic revelation dialogue. It tells of a discussion between "James the Just" and the Savior concerning the suffering that they both would go through and, in the second part of the text, how the teaching was to be handled, the value of women as disciples, and James' martyrdom.

The 2nd Apocalypse of James
      The 20 pages of the 2nd Apocalypse of James, a Gnostic writing, are preserved in fragmented form. The text describes a revelation given to James by the resurrected Jesus. It is told in a two part report to James' father, Theuda by Mareim, a priest. It is considered an early work because of the lack of any reference to the New Testament.

The Apocalypse of Adam
      Narrated by Seth, the son of Adam and Eve, the Apocalypse of Adam is a revelation given to Adam by three angels. The text is considered to be dated to the early 1st or 2nd Century CE. Epiphanius and some Manichaen works mention an "Apocalypse of Adam", but it is not known if this text is the one to which they refer.

The Apocalypse of Peter
      The Apocalypse of Peter is a Gnostic text that gives an account of revelatory visions seen by Peter and interpreted by the Savior, Jesus. The work was likely written in the 3rd Century CE.

The Concept of Our Great Power
     The text of The Concept of Our Great Power deals with salvation and "Our Great Power" who is the Supreme God. The work is divided into three parts or aeons. It is an apocalyptic work and is thought to have been written in the 4th Century CE although there is a question of this date.

The Paraphrase of Shem
     For the most part, The Paraphrase of Shem is an apocalyptic text. It relates how Shem ascends to the height of creation and his descent back to Earth. It discusses such topics as the Flood, Sodom's destruction, and the baptism and resurrection of the Savior.

Zostrianos
     Zostrianos is one of the longest books of the Nag Hammadi Library. It is an apocalyptic work that deals with a heavenly journey by Zostrianos. There he meets angel guides and is taught the gnosis of the aeons. Although there are a few points of the text that are Christian, it is Gnostic in form.

Melchizedek
     The Melchizedek text is considered to be an apocalyptic work. It consist, in part, of revelations given to the Priest of the Most High God, Melchizedek, by Gamaliel, an angel. The revelations consit of information pertaining to the denial, by some, of the works of Jesus, his death, his subsequent resurrection, and Melchizedek's future priestly office. The manuscript was originally written in Greek, possibly in the 3rd Century CE. It is thought to have been written in Egypt.

Marsanes
     Marsanes was a Gnostic prophet. It is not known if he is the author of the text by the same name found in the Nag Hammadi Library. Extremely fragmented, more than half of the text has been lost. Marsanes is an apocalyptic work which contains fragmented accounts of visions, an ascent to heaven, discussions about reality, and the mystical alphabet. There are no Christian elements present in Marsanes. It was likely written in the 3rd Century CE, possibly in Syria.

The Gospels

The Gospel of Truth (Codex I)
      This Christian Gnostic text was written between 140-180 CE. The manuscript is clearly of the Valentinian school and offers reflections on the man, Jesus, and his work. The Codex is mentioned by Iranaeus in his work "Against the Heresies". Some scholars have theorized that Valentinus himself is the author of the text. The manuscript is divided into three sections. The first consist of the generation of error, Jesus as the teacher and revealer, and the death of Jesus. The second section deals with the effects of the "Gospel of Truth" and how one can return to the Father. And, the third part of The Gospel of Truth focuses on the return to the Source, the Father, with the ultimate goal of rest in the Father. Those who realize the destiny of the return are the children of the Father. The text appealed to and was widely used by many Christians in the 2nd Century CE.

The Gospel of Thomas (Codex II)
      The Gospel of Thomas consist of the sayings of Jesus. They include proverbs, parables, prophecies, and the rules of the community. The Coptic version was translated from the Greek and fragments of the Greek text can be found in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The Greek version was written between 50-125 CE. The author is supposed to have been Didymos Judas Thomas.
The text was most likely written in Syria and could possibly have been originally written in Aramaic. The text, in its original form, probably dates to the 1st Century CE.

The Gospel of Philip (Codex II)
      Written possibly as late as the 2nd half of the 3rd Century CE, the Gospel of Philip was likely penned in Syria. The Coptic version is a translation of the Greek text. It contains sections on sacramental initiation rituals, meanings of sacred names, explanations of the rules for the life of initiates, interpretations of Biblical scripture, and the sayings and deeds of Jesus. It appears to have been written by a Christian Gnostic.

The Gospel of the Egyptians ("The Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit"--Codex III)
      There are two Coptic versions of The Gospel of the Egyptians. Both were translated from the Greek into Coptic. The manuscript is considered to be a Gnostic salvation history presenting the life of the Patriarch Seth. Seth, who is imagined to be the father of the Gnostic race, is portrayed as the author of The Gospel of the Egyptians. The date and place of origin of the text is not known.

The Gospel of Mary
      Written originally in Greek sometime in the 2nd Century CE, the Gospel of Mary is a two-part text which describes a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples and a special revelation given to Mary by the Savior. The text is considered Gnostic in nature and the two copies, one in Greek, one in Coptic, are fragmented.

Part 2

"The Nag Hammadi Library In English"
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Links to On-line Study Resources on the Nag Hammadi Library
The Gnostic Society Library
Nag Hammadi and Berlin Gnostic Library Collection
Nag Hammadi Library

 Books for the Study of the Nag Hammadi Library
The Gnostic Gospels, Elaine Pagels, Vintage, 1989
The Coptic Gnostic Library: A Complete Edition of the Nag Hammadi Codices, James M. Robinson,Brill Academic Publishers, 2000
The Secret Teachings of Jesus, Marvin Meyer, Vintage, 1986

Beyond Belief : The Secret Gospel of Thomas, Elaine Pagels, Random House, 2003